New Viable and Sustainable Learning in Design-education
A decade of and a program, including world-wide initiatives for developing Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) has been formed by UN and UNESCO (2004). Lately, the report: Education for Sustainable Development Goals (2017) stresses developing an emancipatory frame for developing ESD’s with a definition of the development of eight competencies. (6) UNESCO, 2017, p 10-55 (8) Rieckmann 2018. The present trans-disciplinary research on ESD’s is co-relating with an ongoing design-research discourse, - the so-called DESIS-discourse. (Jegou & Manzini, (2008); Sangiorgi, (2011), Manzini (2011, 2016) As new design disciplines emerge within Service Design, (SD) the need to know how to and help improve the quality of the designer works in complex social or sustainable fields, emerges. (Nisula, 2012) The new design disciplines boundaries may blur, but they are linked to complex transdisciplinary design for social innovation and often requires the use of many different competencies. (Jegou & Manzini, (2008); Sangiorgi, (2011), Manzini (2011), 2016), Østergaard, (2018), Wetter-Edman, (2014). At the same time, design-researchers impose the role of the designers and design schools to be potential “Agents of Change”. (Manzini, (2008), (2011), (2016), Wetter-Edman, (2014), Tischer, et al. (2016, Cumulus). On the other hand research demonstrates design-students gaps of competencies when they interact with other professionals or users in complex design-process’. (1. Østergaard, (2018), 2. Bason, (2013), 3. Mulgan, (2014), 4. Norman, (2010) Recent research also show a lack of commitment and feeling of attachment to the complex sustainable, social or environmental challenges from the students. (Illeris, (2016), Læssøe, (2013), Østergaard, (2019) A new emotional competence-oriented didactic with a focus on student-outputs and informal learning in opposition to a traditional knowledge based formal learning approach focusing on the teacher’s inputs, in ESD’s is emerging. (Frisk & Larsson, 2011, Biberhofer, et al. 2019) Progressively, methodological changes are introduced in the educational system. Thanks to research in neuroscience (LeDoux, 1992; Dirkx, 2011) emotions have been shown to play an important role in the learning process. Apart from being present in decision-making and product acquisition, the process of empathizing of current problems and accelerating the adoption of new cultural values (Abella, Clèries & Marco-Almagro 2019). Chapman (2015) demonstrated the Emotionally durable design theory promoting emotions within the design with the aim of allowing users to keep and preserve more time their products. For that reason, there is an important and interesting challenge to understand how designers can implement emotions in their designs to promote better learning and practicing of the sustainability development goals. In order to understand the reasons why designers not necessarily perform very well in complex sustainable design process in ESD’s this article wishes to compare the ESD-didactical research on SDG-competencies with the latest empirical data from ESD-courses on two design schools.