Augmented reality in lower secondary science teaching: Teachers and students as producers
This paper presents research looking into the use of augmented reality (AR) in lower secondary science framed by a 3-year EU-ERASMUS+ project with participating schools from Denmark, Norway and Spain. A design based research approach was applied including three rounds of testing AR-resources and iteratively developing the principles for supporting student learning. In the first round, we tested two pre-produced AR-animations with the teachers being responsible for the scaffolding in the classes. In the next round, AR-animations developed and designed by the teachers were tested, and finally in the third round, the focus was on supporting students as producers of the AR. Data sources are teacher and student interviews and questionnaires, with among others questions about perceived outcomes. Additional data are video and classroom observations, which are analysed with a focus on teacher scaffolding and classroom dialogues. Findings across data sources point to positive possibilities for supporting students’ representational competencies, how¬ever dependent of the teachers’ thorough use of scaffolding. The teachers refer to students’ active engagement in guided inquiry, where the technology supports them in understanding the science content. Students report about a high level of outcomes, e.g., by experiencing a sense of presence in the science phenomena and “seeing the invisible”. The third round of testing with students as AR producers in particular revealed affordances for their creative and collaborative use of digital resources in model-based inquiry. The findings are discussed including perspectives about the use of AR in a new EU-ERASMUS+ project about Ocean Literacy, where both the affordances related to inviting students into “seeing” the invisible large-scale processes, and the experiences with scaffolding dialogues and model-based inquiry are highly relevant. Furthermore, based on the literature in the field of Ocean Literacy it is recommended to develop further the use of real-time data in the AR-resources.